Social and Emotional Development of Children


The social and emotional development of children and teenagers which continues into adulthood.

Emotional development:
Emotional development is the emergence of a child's experience, expression, understanding, and regulations of emotions from birth through late adolescence. It also comprises how growth and changes in these processes concerning emotions occur.

What is Social - Emotional development?
Positive and nurturing early experiences and relationships have a significant impact on a child's social - emotional development.
They also influence how the young child's brain develops. An attachment relationship is an enduring one that develops during the first few years of the child's life.

Erikson's Eight stages of development by  psychiatrist , Erik Erikson in 1956.
According to Erikson , the socialization process consists of eight phases - the 
" eight stages of man" . His eight stages of man were formulated not through experimental work, but through wide - ranging experience in psychotherapy , including extensive experience with children and adolescents from low as well as upper - and middle - social classes .Each stage is regarded by Erikson as a " Psychosocial crisis," which arises and demands resolution before the next stage can be satisfactorily negotiated.

1.Learning Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust (Hope)
Chronologically , this is the period of infancy through the first one or two years of life. The child well handled, nurtured, and loved develops trust and security and a basic optimism , Badly handled he becomes insecure and mistrustful.
2.Learning Autonomy Versus Shame 
( Will)
The second psychological crisis Erikson believes, occurs during early childhood , probably between about 18months or 2 Years of age. The "well- parented " child emerges from this stage sure of himself , elated with his new found control and proud rather than a shamed. Autonomy is not , however , entirely synonymous with assured self possession , initiative , and independence but , at least for children in the early part of this psychological crisis , includes stormy self-will, tantrums, stubbornness and negativism. For example , one sees may 2 years olds resotutely folding their arms to prevent their mothers - from holding their hands as they cross the street also, the sound of 'No' rings - through the house or the grocery store.
3.Learning  Initiative Versus Guilt
 ( Purpose)
Erikson believes  that this third psychological crisis occurs during what he calls the " Play age" , or the later preschool years ( from about 3and half to in the United States culture  , entry into formal school).

During it, the healthy developing child learns : 
🔵to imagine , to broader his skills through active play of all sorts, including fantasy
🔵to cooperate with others 
🔵 to lead as well as to follow 

Immobilized by guilt , he is : 
🔵fearful 
🔵hangs on the fringes of groups 
🔵continues to depend unduly on adults and 
🔵is restricted both in the development of play skills and in imagination.

4.Industry Versus Inferiority (Competence)
Erikson believes that the fourth psychological crisis is handled , for better or worse, during what he calls the " school age", presumably up to and possibly including some of Junior high school.
Here the child learns to master the more formal skills of life: 
🔵relating with peers according to rules 🔵progressing from free play to play that may be elaborately structured by rulls and may demand formal team work, such as baseball and 
🔵mastering social studies , reading, arithmetic.Homework is a necessity , and the need for self discipline increases yearly . The child who, because of his successive and successful resolutions of earlier psychological crisis, is trusting, autonomous , and full of initiative will learn easily enough to be industrious. However the mistrusting child will doubt the future .The shame - and guilt- filled child will experience defeat and I feriority .


5.Learning Identity Versus Identity Diffusion ( Fidelity)
During the fifth psychosocial crisis( adolescence, from about 13 or 14 to about 20) the child , now an adolescent , learns how to answer satisfactory and happily the question of " who am I ?" But even the best - adjusted of adolescents experiences some role identity diffusion : most boys and probably most girls experiment with minor delinquency; rebellion flourishes ; self doubts flood the youngster ; and so on.
Erikson believes that during successful earlier adolescence , mature time perspective is developed; the young person acquires self - certainty as opposed to self consciousness and self-doubt .He comes to experiment with different- usually constructive - roles rather than adopting a " negative identity" ( such as delinquency).
He actually anticipates achievement, and achieves , rather than being " paralyzed" by feelings of inferiority or by an inadequate time perspective. In later adolescence , clear sexual identity- manhood or womanhood- is established. The adolescent seeks leadership (someone to inspire him), and gradually develops a set of ideals. Erikson believes that, in our culture , adolescence affords a " psychosocial moratorium", particularly for middle - and upper- class American children.
They do not yet have to play for keeps   "but can experiment , trying various roles , and suitable for them.
6. Learning Intimacy Versus Isolation (Love)
The successful young adult, for the first time , can experience true intimacy- the sort of intimacy that makes possible good marriage or a genuine and ending friendship.
7.Learning Generativity Versus self Absorption ( Care)
In adulthood , the psychological crisis demands generativity , both in the sense of marriage and parenthood, and in the sense of working productively and creatively.
8.Integrity Versus Despair (Wisdom)
If the other seven psychosocial crisis have been successful resolved , the  mature adult develops the peak of adjustment , integrity . He trusts , he is independent and dares the new. He works hard , has found a well defined role in life , and has developed a self concept with which he is happy. He can. Be intimate without strain , guilt, regret, or lake of realism; and he is proud of what he creates - his children, his work, or his hobbies. If one or more of the earlier psychosocial crises have not been resolved  , he may view himself and his life with disgust and despair.


These eight stages of psychosocial ,helping the children through the various stages and the positive learning that should accompany them is a complex and difficult task ; as any worried parent or teacher knows.
Search forthe best ways of accomplishing this task accounts for much of the research in the field of child development.
Socializationz , then is a learning- teaching process that when successful , results in the human organism's moring from its infant state of helpless but total egocentricity to its ideal adult state of sensible conformity coupled with independent creativity.


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