The Hereditary Package

Within the sex cells of every man and woman are twenty-three pairs of Chromosome. A Chromosome  is a threadlike structure that has strings of tiny particles called Genes. The Genes are the true carriers of Heredity.

Chromosomes and gender
Human cells (except spermatozoa and ova) have 23 pairs of chromosomes, giving a total of 46 chromosomes; this is known as the diploid number. During cell division (mitosis), the diploid number is maintained. The chromosomes in the first 22 pairs – the autosomes – are the same in both sexes. The 23rd pair determines the gender of the individual; its two chromosomes are called the sex chromosomes (VanPutte et al, 2017). In most people, sex chromosomes come in one of two combinations:

XX = female;
XY = male.

As female cells only contain X chromosomes, ova will only ever contain X chromosomes. However, male cells always contain both X and Y chromosomes, so spermatozoa can have either an X or Y chromosome associated with them. Roughly equal numbers of X-bearing and Y-bearing spermatozoa are produced, so sex is determined by which type of spermatozoon fuses with the ovum. This normally results in roughly half of all children being male and half female. 

There are only two possibilities when determining sex (X-bearing spermatozoon producing a girl or Y-bearing spermatozoon producing a boy) so it is a bit like flipping a coin – it is possible to see four or five heads (or more) in a row and, in the same way, parents may have four or five children (or more) of the same sex in a row. However, when populations are examined as a whole, there is roughly a 50:50 split between the sexes.

Not all males are XY and not all females are XX; indeed, some of the most common survivable chromosomal abnormalities affect the sex chromosomes. 

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